Gurgaon was supposed to be the model city that would emerge on the outskirts of Delhi to provide all of India with an example of what the future of business and development in India should look like. The rapid growth and development of Gurgaon was initially praised and applauded as it seemed that Gurgaon was creating jobs, developing industry, and attracting significant foreign business investment from major companies like Citibank, Motorola, IBM, Oberoi, Trident and Westin.

However, the rapid rise and development of Gurgaon also created issues including inadequate sanitation services, lack of adequate water supply, and a lack of oversight to protect the interests of the poor migrant workers who were lured to Gurgaon by promises of jobs and economic opportunity. The development of the city has been described as “a private sector gone berserk because it was blindsided by greed, successive governments that abdicated responsibility, and apathy on part of the landed gentry.”

Due to the fact that the development of Gurgaon was largely left to the industrialists and private corporations, there has been minimal oversight or regulation of business and manufacturing practices. In fact, the All India Trade Union Congress claims that the significant foreign industrial investment was the result of an implicit agreement between investors and the government of Haryana that union activity would be suppressed.

This has led to an environment in which human rights violations are rampant and the government is complicit in allowing business and manufacturing to continue abusing workers.

The Empty Promise of Freedom of Association: A Study of Anti‐Union Practices in Haryana

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